Binding affinity of a highly sensitive Au/Ag/Au/Chitosan-graphene oxide sensor based on direct detection of Pb2+ and Hg2+ ions

Nur Hasiba Kamaruddin, Ahmad Ashrif A Bakar, Nadhratun Naiim Mobarak, Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly Zan, Norhana Arsad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The study of binding affinity is essential in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing because it allows researchers to quantify the affinity between the analyte and immobilised ligands of an SPR sensor. In this study, we demonstrate the derivation of the binding affinity constant, K, for Pb2+ and Hg2+ ions according to their SPR response using a gold/silver/gold/chitosan–grapheme oxide (Au/Ag/Au/CS–GO) sensor for the concentration range of 0.1–5 ppm. The higher affinity of Pb2+ to binding with the CS–GO sensor explains the outstanding sensitivity of 2.05 °ppm−1 against 1.66 °ppm−1 of Hg2+. The maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) upon detection of Pb2+ is 1.53, and exceeds the suggested logical criterion of an SNR. The Au/Ag/Au/CS–GO SPR sensor also exhibits excellent repeatability in Pb2+ due to the strong bond between its functional groups and this cation. The adsorption data of Pb2+ and Hg2+ on the CS–GO sensor fits well with the Langmuir isotherm model where the affinity constant, K, of Pb2+ and Hg2+ ions is computed. The affinity of Pb2+ ions to the Au/Ag/Au/CS–GO sensor is significantly higher than that of Hg2+ based on the value of K, 7 × 105 M−1 and 4 × 105 M−1, respectively. The higher shift in SPR angles due to Pb2+ and Hg2+ compared to Cr3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions also reveals the greater affinity of the CS–GO SPR sensor to them, thus supporting the rationale for obtaining K for these two heavy metals. This study provides a better understanding on the sensing performance of such sensors in detecting heavy metal ions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2277
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Volume17
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2017

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Surface Plasmon Resonance
Chitosan
Oxides
Graphene
affinity
graphene
Surface plasmon resonance
surface plasmon resonance
Ions
oxides
sensors
Sensors
ions
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Heavy Metals
Gold
heavy metals
Heavy metals
Heavy Ions

Keywords

  • Binding affinity
  • Chitosan-graphene oxide
  • Lead
  • Mercury
  • Multi-metallic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Binding affinity of a highly sensitive Au/Ag/Au/Chitosan-graphene oxide sensor based on direct detection of Pb2+ and Hg2+ ions. / Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; A Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif; Mobarak, Nadhratun Naiim; Zan, Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly; Arsad, Norhana.

In: Sensors (Switzerland), Vol. 17, No. 10, 2277, 06.10.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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