Ball milling pretreatment and diluted acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres for the production of levulinic acid

Siew Xian Chin, Chin Hua Chia, Sarani Zakaria, Zhen Fang, Sahrim Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres were pretreated by ball milling (BM) at different durations of times. The pretreated fibres were characterised by wide angle X-ray diffraction analysis, particle-size distribution and scanning electron microscopy while the effectiveness of the pretreatment was correlated with the yield of acid hydrolysis to produce levulinic acid (LA). The obtained results showed that the highest yield of LA (10.4g/L, 52.08%) can be achieved from the 12h BM pretreated EFB fibres. Further BM pretreatment exceeding 12h has no significant effect on the LA yield. Optimisation process was further carried out by applying central composite with rotatable design to verify the optimum parameter (H<inf>2</inf>SO<inf>4</inf> concentration, temperature, and time) to produce LA. The optimal conditions for the LA production from the EFB fibres were 0.57N H<inf>2</inf>SO<inf>4</inf>, 185.98°C, and 195.77min for producing 10.77g/L (53.93 %) of LA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-92
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers
Volume52
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2015

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Palm oil
Ball milling
Fruits
Hydrolysis
Acids
Fibers
Particle size analysis
X ray diffraction analysis
levulinic acid
Scanning electron microscopy
Composite materials

Keywords

  • Green chemicals
  • Levulinic acid
  • Optimisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

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title = "Ball milling pretreatment and diluted acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres for the production of levulinic acid",
abstract = "Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres were pretreated by ball milling (BM) at different durations of times. The pretreated fibres were characterised by wide angle X-ray diffraction analysis, particle-size distribution and scanning electron microscopy while the effectiveness of the pretreatment was correlated with the yield of acid hydrolysis to produce levulinic acid (LA). The obtained results showed that the highest yield of LA (10.4g/L, 52.08{\%}) can be achieved from the 12h BM pretreated EFB fibres. Further BM pretreatment exceeding 12h has no significant effect on the LA yield. Optimisation process was further carried out by applying central composite with rotatable design to verify the optimum parameter (H2SO4 concentration, temperature, and time) to produce LA. The optimal conditions for the LA production from the EFB fibres were 0.57N H2SO4, 185.98°C, and 195.77min for producing 10.77g/L (53.93 {\%}) of LA.",
keywords = "Green chemicals, Levulinic acid, Optimisation",
author = "Chin, {Siew Xian} and Chia, {Chin Hua} and Sarani Zakaria and Zhen Fang and Sahrim Ahmad",
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T1 - Ball milling pretreatment and diluted acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres for the production of levulinic acid

AU - Chin, Siew Xian

AU - Chia, Chin Hua

AU - Zakaria, Sarani

AU - Fang, Zhen

AU - Ahmad, Sahrim

PY - 2015/7/1

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N2 - Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres were pretreated by ball milling (BM) at different durations of times. The pretreated fibres were characterised by wide angle X-ray diffraction analysis, particle-size distribution and scanning electron microscopy while the effectiveness of the pretreatment was correlated with the yield of acid hydrolysis to produce levulinic acid (LA). The obtained results showed that the highest yield of LA (10.4g/L, 52.08%) can be achieved from the 12h BM pretreated EFB fibres. Further BM pretreatment exceeding 12h has no significant effect on the LA yield. Optimisation process was further carried out by applying central composite with rotatable design to verify the optimum parameter (H2SO4 concentration, temperature, and time) to produce LA. The optimal conditions for the LA production from the EFB fibres were 0.57N H2SO4, 185.98°C, and 195.77min for producing 10.77g/L (53.93 %) of LA.

AB - Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres were pretreated by ball milling (BM) at different durations of times. The pretreated fibres were characterised by wide angle X-ray diffraction analysis, particle-size distribution and scanning electron microscopy while the effectiveness of the pretreatment was correlated with the yield of acid hydrolysis to produce levulinic acid (LA). The obtained results showed that the highest yield of LA (10.4g/L, 52.08%) can be achieved from the 12h BM pretreated EFB fibres. Further BM pretreatment exceeding 12h has no significant effect on the LA yield. Optimisation process was further carried out by applying central composite with rotatable design to verify the optimum parameter (H2SO4 concentration, temperature, and time) to produce LA. The optimal conditions for the LA production from the EFB fibres were 0.57N H2SO4, 185.98°C, and 195.77min for producing 10.77g/L (53.93 %) of LA.

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