Assessment of rockfall potential of limestone hills in the Kinta Valley

Norbert Simon, Muhammad Fahmi Abdul Ghani, Azimah Hussin, Thian Lai Goh, Abdul Ghani Rafek, Noraini Surip, Tuan Rusli Tuan Monam, Khai Ern Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Limestone hills are an astounding natural beauty to the landscape due to their unique features formed by the dissolution of carbonate by water (natural dissolution).However, depending on a hill's location, it may also pose danger to humansand properties due to the presence of extensive joints and fractures within the limestone hill.This study was conductedtoassess the condition of seven limestone hills in kinta valley, perak.They are gunung rapat, gunung datok, gunung lang,gunung paniang, gua kandu, gunung panjang, and gua tempurung.The significance of studying these hills are their locationsthat are close to roads, residential areas and the possible development as tourist attractions.A total of twelve assessment stations with two to three stations for each of the hills were set up to assess their stability using the rock mass strength (RMS) system.The geological conditions of the hills were assessed by seven components in the RMS system for rockfall assessment: Intact rock strength (using a Schmidt hammer), weathering, spacing of joints, joint orientations, width of joints, continuity of joints, and outflow of groundwater.Subsequently, the hills are classified into very strong, strong, moderate,weak, or very weak based on the sum of ratings for all the components.The assessment has revealed that the slopes at the assessment stations at gunung rapat and gunung lang are classified as weak whilst that at gunung datok is classified as moderate to weak.The main reasons are these hills are heavily jointed with smaller joint spacings (below 300 mm),joints daylighting steeply out of slopes (85-90°), wider joint opening (larger than 20 mm) and very low Schmidt hammer rebound values (below 35 an average).Based on these factors, these hills were classified as weak (RMS: below 50) and highly susceptible to the occurrence of rockfalls.The remaining five hills have moderate susceptibility based on the RMS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-34
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Sustainability Science and Management
Volume10
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

rockfall
Limestone
Rocks
limestone
valley
Hammers
Dissolution
residential area
Daylighting
beauty
tourist
Weathering
continuity
rating
road
Groundwater
rock
Carbonates
water
spacing

Keywords

  • Geological condition
  • Limestone
  • Rock mass strength
  • Rockfall examination
  • Susceptibility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Pollution
  • Geography, Planning and Development

Cite this

Assessment of rockfall potential of limestone hills in the Kinta Valley. / Simon, Norbert; Ghani, Muhammad Fahmi Abdul; Hussin, Azimah; Goh, Thian Lai; Rafek, Abdul Ghani; Surip, Noraini; Monam, Tuan Rusli Tuan; Lee, Khai Ern.

In: Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2015, p. 24-34.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Simon, Norbert ; Ghani, Muhammad Fahmi Abdul ; Hussin, Azimah ; Goh, Thian Lai ; Rafek, Abdul Ghani ; Surip, Noraini ; Monam, Tuan Rusli Tuan ; Lee, Khai Ern. / Assessment of rockfall potential of limestone hills in the Kinta Valley. In: Journal of Sustainability Science and Management. 2015 ; Vol. 10, No. 2. pp. 24-34.
@article{4d84f91c41c74ede9ef0d766d41ca68b,
title = "Assessment of rockfall potential of limestone hills in the Kinta Valley",
abstract = "Limestone hills are an astounding natural beauty to the landscape due to their unique features formed by the dissolution of carbonate by water (natural dissolution).However, depending on a hill's location, it may also pose danger to humansand properties due to the presence of extensive joints and fractures within the limestone hill.This study was conductedtoassess the condition of seven limestone hills in kinta valley, perak.They are gunung rapat, gunung datok, gunung lang,gunung paniang, gua kandu, gunung panjang, and gua tempurung.The significance of studying these hills are their locationsthat are close to roads, residential areas and the possible development as tourist attractions.A total of twelve assessment stations with two to three stations for each of the hills were set up to assess their stability using the rock mass strength (RMS) system.The geological conditions of the hills were assessed by seven components in the RMS system for rockfall assessment: Intact rock strength (using a Schmidt hammer), weathering, spacing of joints, joint orientations, width of joints, continuity of joints, and outflow of groundwater.Subsequently, the hills are classified into very strong, strong, moderate,weak, or very weak based on the sum of ratings for all the components.The assessment has revealed that the slopes at the assessment stations at gunung rapat and gunung lang are classified as weak whilst that at gunung datok is classified as moderate to weak.The main reasons are these hills are heavily jointed with smaller joint spacings (below 300 mm),joints daylighting steeply out of slopes (85-90°), wider joint opening (larger than 20 mm) and very low Schmidt hammer rebound values (below 35 an average).Based on these factors, these hills were classified as weak (RMS: below 50) and highly susceptible to the occurrence of rockfalls.The remaining five hills have moderate susceptibility based on the RMS.",
keywords = "Geological condition, Limestone, Rock mass strength, Rockfall examination, Susceptibility",
author = "Norbert Simon and Ghani, {Muhammad Fahmi Abdul} and Azimah Hussin and Goh, {Thian Lai} and Rafek, {Abdul Ghani} and Noraini Surip and Monam, {Tuan Rusli Tuan} and Lee, {Khai Ern}",
year = "2015",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "24--34",
journal = "Journal of Sustainability Science and Management",
issn = "1823-8556",
publisher = "Universiti Malaysia Terengganu",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessment of rockfall potential of limestone hills in the Kinta Valley

AU - Simon, Norbert

AU - Ghani, Muhammad Fahmi Abdul

AU - Hussin, Azimah

AU - Goh, Thian Lai

AU - Rafek, Abdul Ghani

AU - Surip, Noraini

AU - Monam, Tuan Rusli Tuan

AU - Lee, Khai Ern

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Limestone hills are an astounding natural beauty to the landscape due to their unique features formed by the dissolution of carbonate by water (natural dissolution).However, depending on a hill's location, it may also pose danger to humansand properties due to the presence of extensive joints and fractures within the limestone hill.This study was conductedtoassess the condition of seven limestone hills in kinta valley, perak.They are gunung rapat, gunung datok, gunung lang,gunung paniang, gua kandu, gunung panjang, and gua tempurung.The significance of studying these hills are their locationsthat are close to roads, residential areas and the possible development as tourist attractions.A total of twelve assessment stations with two to three stations for each of the hills were set up to assess their stability using the rock mass strength (RMS) system.The geological conditions of the hills were assessed by seven components in the RMS system for rockfall assessment: Intact rock strength (using a Schmidt hammer), weathering, spacing of joints, joint orientations, width of joints, continuity of joints, and outflow of groundwater.Subsequently, the hills are classified into very strong, strong, moderate,weak, or very weak based on the sum of ratings for all the components.The assessment has revealed that the slopes at the assessment stations at gunung rapat and gunung lang are classified as weak whilst that at gunung datok is classified as moderate to weak.The main reasons are these hills are heavily jointed with smaller joint spacings (below 300 mm),joints daylighting steeply out of slopes (85-90°), wider joint opening (larger than 20 mm) and very low Schmidt hammer rebound values (below 35 an average).Based on these factors, these hills were classified as weak (RMS: below 50) and highly susceptible to the occurrence of rockfalls.The remaining five hills have moderate susceptibility based on the RMS.

AB - Limestone hills are an astounding natural beauty to the landscape due to their unique features formed by the dissolution of carbonate by water (natural dissolution).However, depending on a hill's location, it may also pose danger to humansand properties due to the presence of extensive joints and fractures within the limestone hill.This study was conductedtoassess the condition of seven limestone hills in kinta valley, perak.They are gunung rapat, gunung datok, gunung lang,gunung paniang, gua kandu, gunung panjang, and gua tempurung.The significance of studying these hills are their locationsthat are close to roads, residential areas and the possible development as tourist attractions.A total of twelve assessment stations with two to three stations for each of the hills were set up to assess their stability using the rock mass strength (RMS) system.The geological conditions of the hills were assessed by seven components in the RMS system for rockfall assessment: Intact rock strength (using a Schmidt hammer), weathering, spacing of joints, joint orientations, width of joints, continuity of joints, and outflow of groundwater.Subsequently, the hills are classified into very strong, strong, moderate,weak, or very weak based on the sum of ratings for all the components.The assessment has revealed that the slopes at the assessment stations at gunung rapat and gunung lang are classified as weak whilst that at gunung datok is classified as moderate to weak.The main reasons are these hills are heavily jointed with smaller joint spacings (below 300 mm),joints daylighting steeply out of slopes (85-90°), wider joint opening (larger than 20 mm) and very low Schmidt hammer rebound values (below 35 an average).Based on these factors, these hills were classified as weak (RMS: below 50) and highly susceptible to the occurrence of rockfalls.The remaining five hills have moderate susceptibility based on the RMS.

KW - Geological condition

KW - Limestone

KW - Rock mass strength

KW - Rockfall examination

KW - Susceptibility

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84950113132&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84950113132&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 24

EP - 34

JO - Journal of Sustainability Science and Management

JF - Journal of Sustainability Science and Management

SN - 1823-8556

IS - 2

ER -