Assessment of electric vehicle and photovoltaic integration for oil palm mechanisation practise

M. B. Azwan, Norasikin Ahmad Ludin, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, S. Abd Rahim, K. Norman, K. Ramdhan, D. Solah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study aims to analyse the integration of solar photovoltaic and electric vehicle in farm mechanisation operation for the sustainable development of the oil palm plantation industry in Malaysia. Multiple integration methods have been simulated, and the primary considerations comprise energy costs, capital expenditure, net present costs, and percentage of renewable energy contribution. The simulation results revealed that the on-board solar photovoltaic system is the best-suited method compared to other setups. The actual field test on the selected system was carried out to further validate the simulation study. The results produced a roughly similar percentage of solar energy contribution, which is in the range of 20–30%. In addition, a study was also conducted on the effects of extra weight being added to the vehicle. The results of this revealed that only less than 10 W of additional power was required for the electric vehicle to move at constant velocity with the addition of 43 kg of solar panels and its frame. The operational costs of various practices, which include a knapsack sprayer, an internal combustion engine vehicle, and the selected system, were compared for the herbicide spraying. It was found that the selected system could provide the lowest operational costs per area and could avoid 8 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per hectare per year from the total diesel fuel consumption. Finally, it was concluded that the integration of solar photovoltaic and electric vehicles could provide numerous advantages for the people, the planet, as well as the profit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1365-1375
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Volume140
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

Fingerprint

electric vehicle
Mechanization
Palm oil
Electric vehicles
oil
cost
Costs
photovoltaic system
Herbicides
fuel consumption
Planets
Spraying
Diesel fuels
Internal combustion engines
Fuel consumption
Farms
Solar energy
simulation
energy
expenditure

Keywords

  • Electric vehicle
  • Mechanisation
  • Palm oil
  • Solar energy and photovoltaic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cite this

Assessment of electric vehicle and photovoltaic integration for oil palm mechanisation practise. / Azwan, M. B.; Ahmad Ludin, Norasikin; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Abd Rahim, S.; Norman, K.; Ramdhan, K.; Solah, D.

In: Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 140, 01.01.2017, p. 1365-1375.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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