Application of chemometrics in understanding the spatial distribution of human pharmaceuticals in surface water

Najat Ahmed Al-Odaini, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Muniirah Abdul Zali, Hafizan Juahir, Mohamad Ismail Yaziz, Salmijah Surif

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    21 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The growing interest in the environmental occurrence of veterinary and human pharmaceuticals is essentially due to their possible health implications to humans and ecosystem. This study assesses the occurrence of human pharmaceuticals in a Malaysian tropical aquatic environment taking a chemometric approach using cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis. Water samples were collected from seven sampling stations along the heavily populated Langat River basin on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia and its main tributaries. Water samples were extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 18 pharmaceuticals and one metabolite, which cover a range of six therapeutic classes widely consumed in Malaysia. Cluster analysis was applied to group both pharmaceutical pollutants and sampling stations. Cluster analysis successfully clustered sampling stations and pollutants into three major clusters. Discriminant analysis was applied to identify those pollutants which had a significant impact in the definition of clusters. Finally, principal component analysis using a three-component model determined the constitution and data variance explained by each of the three main principal components.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)6735-6748
    Number of pages14
    JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
    Volume184
    Issue number11
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012

    Fingerprint

    Surface waters
    Drug products
    Spatial distribution
    Cluster analysis
    drug
    spatial distribution
    surface water
    cluster analysis
    Discriminant analysis
    Sampling
    discriminant analysis
    Principal component analysis
    pollutant
    principal component analysis
    sampling
    tropical environment
    Liquid chromatography
    Metabolites
    Catchments
    Ecosystems

    Keywords

    • Aquatic pollution
    • Chemometrics
    • Human pharmaceuticals
    • Langat River
    • Malaysia

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Environmental Science(all)
    • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
    • Pollution

    Cite this

    Application of chemometrics in understanding the spatial distribution of human pharmaceuticals in surface water. / Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Zali, Muniirah Abdul; Juahir, Hafizan; Yaziz, Mohamad Ismail; Surif, Salmijah.

    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 184, No. 11, 11.2012, p. 6735-6748.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed ; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi ; Zali, Muniirah Abdul ; Juahir, Hafizan ; Yaziz, Mohamad Ismail ; Surif, Salmijah. / Application of chemometrics in understanding the spatial distribution of human pharmaceuticals in surface water. In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2012 ; Vol. 184, No. 11. pp. 6735-6748.
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