Anti-human herpesvirus type-1 activity of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits methanol extract and fractions

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The development of antiviral agents with the different mode of action is necessary due to high prevalence of viral herpes infections and presence of resistant viral strains. The current study aims at evaluating the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the methanol extract from Phaleria macrocarpa fruits and its fractions. Methanol extract (ME) of P. macrocarpa fruits, chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) were first prepared. Terpene, alkaloid, saponin and tannin were present only in ME and EAF whilst flavone aglycones and steroid were detected in all the preparations. Cytotoxicity of ME, CF and EAF from P. macrocarpa fruit was evaluated against Vero cell. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were between 0.40 to 1.20 mg/mL and can be considered as safe. Antiviral activity (post-treatment) against human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1), pretreatment, virucidal, attachment and penetration assays were analysed by plaque reduction assay. ME and EAF displayed antiviral activity in post-treatment assay whereas no anti-HHV-1 activity was observed when treated with CF. The antiviral selectivity indices (SI) of ME and EAF were 9.8 and 8 respectively. In this current study, extract and fractions were observed to have anti-HHV-1 activity when given as pretreatment in which virus attachment to Vero cell was disabled. Treatment with extract and fractions inactivates the early steps in the viral life cycle of HHV-1 as indicated by the attachment and virucidal assays in a dose-dependent activity. Pretreatment of the virus with ME, CF and EAF can lead to plaque formation to inhibit and the treatment with ME, CF and EAF showed high virucidal activities. However, it was found that only with EAF penetration assay did not affect the inhibition of the virus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-40
Number of pages10
JournalMalaysian Applied Biology
Volume47
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018

Fingerprint

Human Herpesvirus 1
Methanol
Fruit
methanol
Chloroform
fruits
Antiviral Agents
extracts
chloroform
flavone
Vero Cells
assays
pretreatment
viruses
cytotoxicity
Viruses
Virus Attachment
ethyl acetate
Phaleria macrocarpa
Tannins

Keywords

  • Cytotoxicity
  • HHV-1
  • Phaleria macrocarpa fruits
  • Phytochemical content

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Anti-human herpesvirus type-1 activity of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits methanol extract and fractions. / Ismaeel, Mahmud; Eziwar Dyari, Herryawan Ryadi; Md Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz; Wan Ahmad, Wan Yaacob; Ibrahim, Nazlina.

In: Malaysian Applied Biology, Vol. 47, No. 5, 01.11.2018, p. 31-40.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The development of antiviral agents with the different mode of action is necessary due to high prevalence of viral herpes infections and presence of resistant viral strains. The current study aims at evaluating the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the methanol extract from Phaleria macrocarpa fruits and its fractions. Methanol extract (ME) of P. macrocarpa fruits, chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) were first prepared. Terpene, alkaloid, saponin and tannin were present only in ME and EAF whilst flavone aglycones and steroid were detected in all the preparations. Cytotoxicity of ME, CF and EAF from P. macrocarpa fruit was evaluated against Vero cell. The 50{\%} cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were between 0.40 to 1.20 mg/mL and can be considered as safe. Antiviral activity (post-treatment) against human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1), pretreatment, virucidal, attachment and penetration assays were analysed by plaque reduction assay. ME and EAF displayed antiviral activity in post-treatment assay whereas no anti-HHV-1 activity was observed when treated with CF. The antiviral selectivity indices (SI) of ME and EAF were 9.8 and 8 respectively. In this current study, extract and fractions were observed to have anti-HHV-1 activity when given as pretreatment in which virus attachment to Vero cell was disabled. Treatment with extract and fractions inactivates the early steps in the viral life cycle of HHV-1 as indicated by the attachment and virucidal assays in a dose-dependent activity. Pretreatment of the virus with ME, CF and EAF can lead to plaque formation to inhibit and the treatment with ME, CF and EAF showed high virucidal activities. However, it was found that only with EAF penetration assay did not affect the inhibition of the virus.",
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