Analysis of energy utilisation in Malaysian oil palm mechanisation operation

M. B. Azwan, Norasikin Ahmad Ludin, Abd S. Rahim, K. Norman, J. Salmah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the energy used in Malaysian oil palm plantation operations, especially on fuel consumption in farm mechanisation practices. This benchmark study was conducted based on the energy input-output methodology. The results found that 258 GJ of input energy was required to produce 20 t ha-1 yr-1 of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The energy was dominated by chemical fertilisers (66%), followed by labour (21%), machinery (10%), fuel consumption (2%), and chemical herbicide (0.5%), with an energyuse efficiency of 62%. A survey on the fuel consumption in the mechanisation practices was conducted at several oil palm estates. The results showed that almost 2.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1 of diesel fuel was consumed, which is equivalent to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of approximately 133 kg CO2 -eq ha-1 yr-1. The economic indicator was also studied to consider the types of energy improvement initiative that should be taken. This study suggested utilising renewable energy and greener energy technology such as electric powertrain charged via renewable energy source for farm mechanisation operations. It is expected that almost 9.8 kg CO2 -eq ha-1 yr-1 of GHG emission saving and a significant amount of improvement in operational costs could be achieved by utilising the technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)485-495
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Oil Palm Research
Volume28
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016

Fingerprint

Renewable Energy
Mechanization
Palm oil
mechanization
Elaeis guineensis
Fuel consumption
Oils
Energy utilization
Gases
energy use and consumption
Technology
Gas emissions
Greenhouse gases
Benchmarking
renewable energy sources
Gasoline
Farms
energy
Fertilizers
Herbicides

Keywords

  • Energy consumption
  • GHG emission
  • Oil palm mechanisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Biomaterials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

Azwan, M. B., Ahmad Ludin, N., Rahim, A. S., Norman, K., & Salmah, J. (2016). Analysis of energy utilisation in Malaysian oil palm mechanisation operation. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 28(4), 485-495.

Analysis of energy utilisation in Malaysian oil palm mechanisation operation. / Azwan, M. B.; Ahmad Ludin, Norasikin; Rahim, Abd S.; Norman, K.; Salmah, J.

In: Journal of Oil Palm Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, 01.12.2016, p. 485-495.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Azwan, MB, Ahmad Ludin, N, Rahim, AS, Norman, K & Salmah, J 2016, 'Analysis of energy utilisation in Malaysian oil palm mechanisation operation', Journal of Oil Palm Research, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 485-495.
Azwan, M. B. ; Ahmad Ludin, Norasikin ; Rahim, Abd S. ; Norman, K. ; Salmah, J. / Analysis of energy utilisation in Malaysian oil palm mechanisation operation. In: Journal of Oil Palm Research. 2016 ; Vol. 28, No. 4. pp. 485-495.
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