An improved method for the determination of chlorpyrifos in palm oil matrices using gas chromatography

Halimah Muhamad, Osman Hassan, Tan Yew Ai, Ismail Sahid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The objective of this study was to improve the method for determining chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, in various palm oil matrices. Chlorpyrifos was separated from the oil matrices using acetonitrile extraction and then subjected to the solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up process. A silica-based SPE was used for the clean-up process. Quantification of the extracted chlorpyrifos was carried out using a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). The GC detector response was tested using standard solutions containing 0.005 to 0.12 mg ml-1 of chlorpyrifos. The retention time for chlorpyrifos was 4.8 min with the minimum detection limit at 0.005 mg ml-1. The average recoveries of chlorpyrifos from crude palm oil (CPO) spiked with 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1 mg ml-1 chlorpyrifos were 94 ± 2.3%, 93 ± 1.4%, 99 ± 1.6%, 97 ± 2.9% and 95 ± 0.7%, respectively. In the case of crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) and refined, bleached, deodorised palm olein (RBDPOo), the recovery of chlorpyrifos from the spiked oil samples containing 0.02 to 0.1 mg ml-1 of chlorpyrifos ranged from 100% to 101% and from 93% to 99%, with the coefficient of variation ranging from 1.3% to 3.0% and from 0.7% to 2.9%, respectively. The method developed was used to determine the chlorpyrifos content in samples of CPO, CPKO and RBDPOo from mills and a refinery in Selangor, Malaysia. No chlorpyrifos residue was detected in any of the CPO, CPKO and RBDPOo samples collected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1404-1411
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Oil Palm Research
Volume24
Issue numberAUGUST
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012

Fingerprint

Chlorpyrifos
Palm oil
chlorpyrifos
palm oils
Gas chromatography
Gas Chromatography
gas chromatography
palm kernel oil
Petroleum
methodology
Solid Phase Extraction
Gas detectors
solid phase extraction
Recovery
Insecticides
detectors
Oils
palm oil
Acetonitrile
Gases

Keywords

  • Chlorpyrifos
  • Crude palm kernel oil
  • Palm oil
  • Palm olein
  • Solid phase extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Food Science
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Biomaterials

Cite this

An improved method for the determination of chlorpyrifos in palm oil matrices using gas chromatography. / Muhamad, Halimah; Hassan, Osman; Ai, Tan Yew; Sahid, Ismail.

In: Journal of Oil Palm Research, Vol. 24, No. AUGUST, 08.2012, p. 1404-1411.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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