Airborne particles in the city center of Kuala Lumpur: Origin, potential driving factors, and deposition flux in human respiratory airways

Firoz Khan, Ahmad Hazuwan Hamid, Md Aynul Bari, Abdul Basit Ahmad Tajudin, Mohd Talib Latif, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Mazrura Sahani, Muhammad Ikram A Wahab, Yusri Yusup, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Mohd Famey Yusoff, Nowshad Amin, Md. Akhtaruzzaman, Warren Kindzierski, Prashant Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Equatorial warming conditions in urban areas can influence the particle number concentrations (PNCs), but studies assessing such factors are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of size-resolved PNCs, their potential deposition rate in the human respiratory system, and probable local and transboundary inputs of PNCs in Kuala Lumpur. Particle size distributions of a 0.34 to 9.02 μm optical-equivalent size range were monitored at a frequency of 60 s between December 2016 and January 2017 using an optical-based compact scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Diurnal and correlation analysis showed that traffic emissions and meteorological confounding factors were potential driving factors for changes in the PNCs (Dp ≤1 μm) at the modeling site. Trajectory modeling showed that a PNC <100/cm3 was influenced mainly by Indo-China region air masses. On the other hand, a PNC >100/cm3 was influenced by air masses originating from the Indian Ocean and Indochina regions. Receptor models extracted five potential sources of PNCs: industrial emissions, transportation, aged traffic emissions, miscellaneous sources, and a source of secondary origin coupled with meteorological factors. A respiratory deposition model for male and female receptors predicted that the deposition flux of PM1 (particle mass ≤1 μm) into the alveolar (AL) region was higher (0.30 and 0.25 μg/h, respectively) than the upper airway (UA) (0.29 and 0.24 μg/h, respectively) and tracheobronchial (TB) regions (0.02 μg/h for each). However, the PM2.5 deposition flux was higher in the UA (2.02 and 1.68 μg/h, respectively) than in the TB (0.18 and 0.15 μg/h, respectively) and the AL regions (1.09 and 0.91 μg/h, respectively); a similar pattern was also observed for PM10.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1195-1206
Number of pages12
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume650
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2019

Fingerprint

Industrial emissions
particulate flux
Respiratory system
urban pollution
industrial emission
Deposition rates
Shape memory effect
atmospheric deposition
particulate matter
urban area
Particle size
particle size
Fluxes
Air
Particle size analysis
traffic emission
Trajectories
air mass
Scanning
particle

Keywords

  • Particle number concentration
  • Respiratory deposition
  • Size distribution
  • Urban air pollution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Airborne particles in the city center of Kuala Lumpur : Origin, potential driving factors, and deposition flux in human respiratory airways. / Khan, Firoz; Hamid, Ahmad Hazuwan; Bari, Md Aynul; Tajudin, Abdul Basit Ahmad; Latif, Mohd Talib; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Sahani, Mazrura; A Wahab, Muhammad Ikram; Yusup, Yusri; Abdul Maulud, Khairul Nizam; Yusoff, Mohd Famey; Amin, Nowshad; Akhtaruzzaman, Md.; Kindzierski, Warren; Kumar, Prashant.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 650, 10.02.2019, p. 1195-1206.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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