Accuracy and reliability of virtual femur measurement from CT scan

Normaizatul Afizah Ismail, Nurliza Abdullah, Mohamad Helmee Mohamad Noor, Poh Soon Lai, Mohamed Swarhib Shafie, Faridah Mohd. Nor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: In the application of scientific human skeletal variation in medico-legal matters, virtual anthropology is the current technique performed to examine skeleton and its body parts. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the accuracy and reliability of virtual femur measurement through intra and inter-observer error analysis, and comparison was made between the virtual and conventional methods. Methods: A total of 15 femora were examined with four parameters i.e. maximum length of femur (FeMl), diameter of femoral head (FeHd), transverse diameter of midshaft (FeMd) and condylar breadth (FeCb). Osteometric board and vernier calipers were employed for the conventional method, while CT reconstructed images and Osirix MD software was utilised for the virtual method. Results: Results exhibited that there were no significant differences in the measurements by conventional and virtual methods. There were also no significant differences in the measurements by the intra or inter-observer error analyses. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were more than 0.95 by both intra and inter-observer error analyses. Technical error of measurement had displayed values within the acceptable ranges (rTEM <0.08 for intra-observer, <2.25 for inter-observer), and coefficient of reliability (R) indicated small measurement errors (R > 0.95 for intra-observer, R > 0.92 for inter-observer). By parameters, FeMl showed the highest R value (0.99) with the least error in different methods and observers (rTEM = 0.02–0.41%). Bland and Altman plots revealed points scattered close to zero indicating perfect agreement by both virtual and conventional methods. The mean differences for FeMl, FeHd, FeMd and FeCb measurements were 0.01 cm, −0.01 cm, 0.02 cm and 0.01 cm, respectively. Conclusion: This brought to suggest that bone measurement by virtual method was highly accurate and reliable as in the conventional method. It is recommended for implementation in the future anthropological studies especially in countries with limited skeletal collection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-17
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Volume63
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

Femur
Anthropology
Thigh
Human Body
Skeleton
Values
anthropology
Software
Bone and Bones

Keywords

  • Bone
  • Forensic
  • Forensic anthropology
  • Malaysia
  • Virtual method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Law

Cite this

Accuracy and reliability of virtual femur measurement from CT scan. / Ismail, Normaizatul Afizah; Abdullah, Nurliza; Mohamad Noor, Mohamad Helmee; Lai, Poh Soon; Shafie, Mohamed Swarhib; Mohd. Nor, Faridah.

In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Vol. 63, 01.04.2019, p. 11-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ismail, Normaizatul Afizah ; Abdullah, Nurliza ; Mohamad Noor, Mohamad Helmee ; Lai, Poh Soon ; Shafie, Mohamed Swarhib ; Mohd. Nor, Faridah. / Accuracy and reliability of virtual femur measurement from CT scan. In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2019 ; Vol. 63. pp. 11-17.
@article{77eb922c39cc4b4cbd6ef80c121072c7,
title = "Accuracy and reliability of virtual femur measurement from CT scan",
abstract = "Background: In the application of scientific human skeletal variation in medico-legal matters, virtual anthropology is the current technique performed to examine skeleton and its body parts. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the accuracy and reliability of virtual femur measurement through intra and inter-observer error analysis, and comparison was made between the virtual and conventional methods. Methods: A total of 15 femora were examined with four parameters i.e. maximum length of femur (FeMl), diameter of femoral head (FeHd), transverse diameter of midshaft (FeMd) and condylar breadth (FeCb). Osteometric board and vernier calipers were employed for the conventional method, while CT reconstructed images and Osirix MD software was utilised for the virtual method. Results: Results exhibited that there were no significant differences in the measurements by conventional and virtual methods. There were also no significant differences in the measurements by the intra or inter-observer error analyses. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were more than 0.95 by both intra and inter-observer error analyses. Technical error of measurement had displayed values within the acceptable ranges (rTEM <0.08 for intra-observer, <2.25 for inter-observer), and coefficient of reliability (R) indicated small measurement errors (R > 0.95 for intra-observer, R > 0.92 for inter-observer). By parameters, FeMl showed the highest R value (0.99) with the least error in different methods and observers (rTEM = 0.02–0.41{\%}). Bland and Altman plots revealed points scattered close to zero indicating perfect agreement by both virtual and conventional methods. The mean differences for FeMl, FeHd, FeMd and FeCb measurements were 0.01 cm, −0.01 cm, 0.02 cm and 0.01 cm, respectively. Conclusion: This brought to suggest that bone measurement by virtual method was highly accurate and reliable as in the conventional method. It is recommended for implementation in the future anthropological studies especially in countries with limited skeletal collection.",
keywords = "Bone, Forensic, Forensic anthropology, Malaysia, Virtual method",
author = "Ismail, {Normaizatul Afizah} and Nurliza Abdullah and {Mohamad Noor}, {Mohamad Helmee} and Lai, {Poh Soon} and Shafie, {Mohamed Swarhib} and {Mohd. Nor}, Faridah",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jflm.2019.02.010",
language = "English",
volume = "63",
pages = "11--17",
journal = "Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine",
issn = "1752-928X",
publisher = "Churchill Livingstone",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Accuracy and reliability of virtual femur measurement from CT scan

AU - Ismail, Normaizatul Afizah

AU - Abdullah, Nurliza

AU - Mohamad Noor, Mohamad Helmee

AU - Lai, Poh Soon

AU - Shafie, Mohamed Swarhib

AU - Mohd. Nor, Faridah

PY - 2019/4/1

Y1 - 2019/4/1

N2 - Background: In the application of scientific human skeletal variation in medico-legal matters, virtual anthropology is the current technique performed to examine skeleton and its body parts. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the accuracy and reliability of virtual femur measurement through intra and inter-observer error analysis, and comparison was made between the virtual and conventional methods. Methods: A total of 15 femora were examined with four parameters i.e. maximum length of femur (FeMl), diameter of femoral head (FeHd), transverse diameter of midshaft (FeMd) and condylar breadth (FeCb). Osteometric board and vernier calipers were employed for the conventional method, while CT reconstructed images and Osirix MD software was utilised for the virtual method. Results: Results exhibited that there were no significant differences in the measurements by conventional and virtual methods. There were also no significant differences in the measurements by the intra or inter-observer error analyses. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were more than 0.95 by both intra and inter-observer error analyses. Technical error of measurement had displayed values within the acceptable ranges (rTEM <0.08 for intra-observer, <2.25 for inter-observer), and coefficient of reliability (R) indicated small measurement errors (R > 0.95 for intra-observer, R > 0.92 for inter-observer). By parameters, FeMl showed the highest R value (0.99) with the least error in different methods and observers (rTEM = 0.02–0.41%). Bland and Altman plots revealed points scattered close to zero indicating perfect agreement by both virtual and conventional methods. The mean differences for FeMl, FeHd, FeMd and FeCb measurements were 0.01 cm, −0.01 cm, 0.02 cm and 0.01 cm, respectively. Conclusion: This brought to suggest that bone measurement by virtual method was highly accurate and reliable as in the conventional method. It is recommended for implementation in the future anthropological studies especially in countries with limited skeletal collection.

AB - Background: In the application of scientific human skeletal variation in medico-legal matters, virtual anthropology is the current technique performed to examine skeleton and its body parts. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the accuracy and reliability of virtual femur measurement through intra and inter-observer error analysis, and comparison was made between the virtual and conventional methods. Methods: A total of 15 femora were examined with four parameters i.e. maximum length of femur (FeMl), diameter of femoral head (FeHd), transverse diameter of midshaft (FeMd) and condylar breadth (FeCb). Osteometric board and vernier calipers were employed for the conventional method, while CT reconstructed images and Osirix MD software was utilised for the virtual method. Results: Results exhibited that there were no significant differences in the measurements by conventional and virtual methods. There were also no significant differences in the measurements by the intra or inter-observer error analyses. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were more than 0.95 by both intra and inter-observer error analyses. Technical error of measurement had displayed values within the acceptable ranges (rTEM <0.08 for intra-observer, <2.25 for inter-observer), and coefficient of reliability (R) indicated small measurement errors (R > 0.95 for intra-observer, R > 0.92 for inter-observer). By parameters, FeMl showed the highest R value (0.99) with the least error in different methods and observers (rTEM = 0.02–0.41%). Bland and Altman plots revealed points scattered close to zero indicating perfect agreement by both virtual and conventional methods. The mean differences for FeMl, FeHd, FeMd and FeCb measurements were 0.01 cm, −0.01 cm, 0.02 cm and 0.01 cm, respectively. Conclusion: This brought to suggest that bone measurement by virtual method was highly accurate and reliable as in the conventional method. It is recommended for implementation in the future anthropological studies especially in countries with limited skeletal collection.

KW - Bone

KW - Forensic

KW - Forensic anthropology

KW - Malaysia

KW - Virtual method

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062011695&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85062011695&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jflm.2019.02.010

DO - 10.1016/j.jflm.2019.02.010

M3 - Article

C2 - 30825771

AN - SCOPUS:85062011695

VL - 63

SP - 11

EP - 17

JO - Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

JF - Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

SN - 1752-928X

ER -