A study of surface water and groundwater pollution in Ibb city, Yemen

Esmail Al Sabahi, Abdul Rahim Samsudin, Wan Zuhairi bin Wan Yacob, Fadhl Al Nozaily, Fares Alshaebi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A study was carried out to determine the land use impact on water pollution at three different sites i.e Al-Sahool, Mitm and Al-Sayyadah valleys around Ibb city, Yemen. Besides determining the status of water pollution, this study also aims to recognize the sources of pollution and the results will be used to identify the relationship between the impact of land use activities and water pollution. Groundwater samples were collected in all valleys. While leachate samples were collected only from Al-Sahool area and surface water samples from Mitm area. Groundwater was sampled from the existing wells that were drilled in these areas. Surface water and leachate were sampled from small stream and leachate ponds. The physico-chemical characteristic of leachate, groundwater and surface water samples such as pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured in-situ, while fluoride (F), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), nitrites (NO2), nitrates (NO3), ammonia-N (NH3-N), heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Cu), major cations (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Fe) and biological parameters (COD, BOD5) were analysed in the laboratory. The results show that, the leachate from the landfill is in methanogenic phase. The BOD5/COD value of 0.1 mg/l obtained for leachate suggested the partially stabilization. For the groundwater at Al-Sahool area borehole two is the most contaminated borehole, in which physico-chemical parameters are higher, followed by borehole three, borehole four and borehole five. At Mitm area the surface water in general seems to be affected by the discharge of untreated wastewater based on the comparison with unpolluted surface water outside the area. The groundwater quality at Mitm area shows that, only three boreholes are contaminated due to the percolation of untreated wastewater. For Al-Sayyadah area, the low values of physico-chemical parameters indicate a clean area and this is due to the absence of sources of contaminations. In general, Al-Sahool area is the most contaminated area compared to Mitm and Al-Sayyadah areas. The contamination level at Mitm area is higher than Al-Sayyadah area due to the discharge of wastewater directly to the Mitm valley. Therefore, a leachate collection pond should be build to collect and treat the leachate to prevent further contamination as well as build more sanitary landfill facilities in Al-Sahool area to prevent further contamination. An additional wastewater treatment plant at Mitm area is highly recommended to prevent further contamination to surface and groundwater.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalElectronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering
Volume14 F
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Fingerprint

Groundwater pollution
Water pollution
groundwater pollution
Boreholes
Surface waters
water pollution
leachate
Groundwater
Contamination
surface water
borehole
groundwater
Wastewater
Ponds
Land fill
Land use
valley
wastewater
pond
Dissolved oxygen

Keywords

  • Groundwater
  • Heavy metals
  • Leachate
  • Pollution
  • Surface water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Cite this

Al Sabahi, E., Samsudin, A. R., bin Wan Yacob, W. Z., Al Nozaily, F., & Alshaebi, F. (2009). A study of surface water and groundwater pollution in Ibb city, Yemen. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 14 F, 1-12.

A study of surface water and groundwater pollution in Ibb city, Yemen. / Al Sabahi, Esmail; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim; bin Wan Yacob, Wan Zuhairi; Al Nozaily, Fadhl; Alshaebi, Fares.

In: Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 14 F, 2009, p. 1-12.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Al Sabahi, E, Samsudin, AR, bin Wan Yacob, WZ, Al Nozaily, F & Alshaebi, F 2009, 'A study of surface water and groundwater pollution in Ibb city, Yemen', Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 14 F, pp. 1-12.
Al Sabahi, Esmail ; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim ; bin Wan Yacob, Wan Zuhairi ; Al Nozaily, Fadhl ; Alshaebi, Fares. / A study of surface water and groundwater pollution in Ibb city, Yemen. In: Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. 2009 ; Vol. 14 F. pp. 1-12.
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N2 - A study was carried out to determine the land use impact on water pollution at three different sites i.e Al-Sahool, Mitm and Al-Sayyadah valleys around Ibb city, Yemen. Besides determining the status of water pollution, this study also aims to recognize the sources of pollution and the results will be used to identify the relationship between the impact of land use activities and water pollution. Groundwater samples were collected in all valleys. While leachate samples were collected only from Al-Sahool area and surface water samples from Mitm area. Groundwater was sampled from the existing wells that were drilled in these areas. Surface water and leachate were sampled from small stream and leachate ponds. The physico-chemical characteristic of leachate, groundwater and surface water samples such as pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured in-situ, while fluoride (F), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), nitrites (NO2), nitrates (NO3), ammonia-N (NH3-N), heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Cu), major cations (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Fe) and biological parameters (COD, BOD5) were analysed in the laboratory. The results show that, the leachate from the landfill is in methanogenic phase. The BOD5/COD value of 0.1 mg/l obtained for leachate suggested the partially stabilization. For the groundwater at Al-Sahool area borehole two is the most contaminated borehole, in which physico-chemical parameters are higher, followed by borehole three, borehole four and borehole five. At Mitm area the surface water in general seems to be affected by the discharge of untreated wastewater based on the comparison with unpolluted surface water outside the area. The groundwater quality at Mitm area shows that, only three boreholes are contaminated due to the percolation of untreated wastewater. For Al-Sayyadah area, the low values of physico-chemical parameters indicate a clean area and this is due to the absence of sources of contaminations. In general, Al-Sahool area is the most contaminated area compared to Mitm and Al-Sayyadah areas. The contamination level at Mitm area is higher than Al-Sayyadah area due to the discharge of wastewater directly to the Mitm valley. Therefore, a leachate collection pond should be build to collect and treat the leachate to prevent further contamination as well as build more sanitary landfill facilities in Al-Sahool area to prevent further contamination. An additional wastewater treatment plant at Mitm area is highly recommended to prevent further contamination to surface and groundwater.

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