A statistical study of photospheric magnetic field properties of active regions associated with M- and X-class flares using SDO/HMI vector magnetic field data

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

With the aim of understanding the photospheric magnetic field properties of active regions (ARs) that produce M-class or greater flares, physical magnetic parameters of ARs provided by the Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARP) are examined. A total of 223 flares are collected in 83 ARs, including 31 X- and 192 M-class flares. In this study, twelve SHARP parameters are analyzed, which are the sums of various physical quantities (e.g., magnetic flux, magnetic free energy density, vertical current, current helicity, shear angle, and Lorentz force). For X- and M-class flares, good correlation coefficients (≳ 0.90) are obtained among the seven magnetic parameters, namely, total unsigned quantities of (1) magnetic flux, (2) vertical current, (3) current helicity, and (4) flux near polarity inversion line, as well as (5) total photospheric magnetic free energy density, (6) total magnitude of Lorentz force (TOTBSQ), and (7) area of AR. A threshold for low bound is estimated for each of the seven magnetic parameters based on X-class flares. Only ∼5% of M-flares occur below the estimated thresholds. A time difference (T SF ) is calculated between the time when all the magnetic parameter thresholds but TOTBSQ are met (T 1 ) and the time when the flare starts. The TOTBSQ is excluded in the T 1 calculation because its value is often missing in the interval of interest. Results show that (1) ∼77% of X-flares occur within 7 days after T 1 , with an occurrence peak at T SF =2 (∼20% probability), (2) ∼78% of M-flares also occur within 7 days after T 1 , with an occurrence peak at T SF =4 (∼20% probability), and (3) no major flare occurs after T SF =11. It is found that the GOES soft X-ray peak flux has a very weak relationship with the magnetic free energy density. This weak relationship can be interpreted in terms of the energy partition in a flare. In conclusion, the obtained seven thresholds will be useful for monitoring an AR that has a high potential to produce an M- or X-class flare.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-51
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
Volume188
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019

Fingerprint

flares
magnetic field
magnetic fields
energy
space weather
thresholds
flux density
weather
free energy
Lorentz force
GOES
magnetic flux
occurrences
parameter
correlation coefficients
monitoring
partitions
polarity
inversions
shear

Keywords

  • Active region
  • Photospheric magnetic field
  • Solar flare

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

@article{0022839792be46658e9feb8c8bd68862,
title = "A statistical study of photospheric magnetic field properties of active regions associated with M- and X-class flares using SDO/HMI vector magnetic field data",
abstract = "With the aim of understanding the photospheric magnetic field properties of active regions (ARs) that produce M-class or greater flares, physical magnetic parameters of ARs provided by the Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARP) are examined. A total of 223 flares are collected in 83 ARs, including 31 X- and 192 M-class flares. In this study, twelve SHARP parameters are analyzed, which are the sums of various physical quantities (e.g., magnetic flux, magnetic free energy density, vertical current, current helicity, shear angle, and Lorentz force). For X- and M-class flares, good correlation coefficients (≳ 0.90) are obtained among the seven magnetic parameters, namely, total unsigned quantities of (1) magnetic flux, (2) vertical current, (3) current helicity, and (4) flux near polarity inversion line, as well as (5) total photospheric magnetic free energy density, (6) total magnitude of Lorentz force (TOTBSQ), and (7) area of AR. A threshold for low bound is estimated for each of the seven magnetic parameters based on X-class flares. Only ∼5{\%} of M-flares occur below the estimated thresholds. A time difference (T SF ) is calculated between the time when all the magnetic parameter thresholds but TOTBSQ are met (T 1 ) and the time when the flare starts. The TOTBSQ is excluded in the T 1 calculation because its value is often missing in the interval of interest. Results show that (1) ∼77{\%} of X-flares occur within 7 days after T 1 , with an occurrence peak at T SF =2 (∼20{\%} probability), (2) ∼78{\%} of M-flares also occur within 7 days after T 1 , with an occurrence peak at T SF =4 (∼20{\%} probability), and (3) no major flare occurs after T SF =11. It is found that the GOES soft X-ray peak flux has a very weak relationship with the magnetic free energy density. This weak relationship can be interpreted in terms of the energy partition in a flare. In conclusion, the obtained seven thresholds will be useful for monitoring an AR that has a high potential to produce an M- or X-class flare.",
keywords = "Active region, Photospheric magnetic field, Solar flare",
author = "{Wai Leong}, Teh",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jastp.2019.04.001",
language = "English",
volume = "188",
pages = "44--51",
journal = "Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics",
issn = "1364-6826",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A statistical study of photospheric magnetic field properties of active regions associated with M- and X-class flares using SDO/HMI vector magnetic field data

AU - Wai Leong, Teh

PY - 2019/7/1

Y1 - 2019/7/1

N2 - With the aim of understanding the photospheric magnetic field properties of active regions (ARs) that produce M-class or greater flares, physical magnetic parameters of ARs provided by the Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARP) are examined. A total of 223 flares are collected in 83 ARs, including 31 X- and 192 M-class flares. In this study, twelve SHARP parameters are analyzed, which are the sums of various physical quantities (e.g., magnetic flux, magnetic free energy density, vertical current, current helicity, shear angle, and Lorentz force). For X- and M-class flares, good correlation coefficients (≳ 0.90) are obtained among the seven magnetic parameters, namely, total unsigned quantities of (1) magnetic flux, (2) vertical current, (3) current helicity, and (4) flux near polarity inversion line, as well as (5) total photospheric magnetic free energy density, (6) total magnitude of Lorentz force (TOTBSQ), and (7) area of AR. A threshold for low bound is estimated for each of the seven magnetic parameters based on X-class flares. Only ∼5% of M-flares occur below the estimated thresholds. A time difference (T SF ) is calculated between the time when all the magnetic parameter thresholds but TOTBSQ are met (T 1 ) and the time when the flare starts. The TOTBSQ is excluded in the T 1 calculation because its value is often missing in the interval of interest. Results show that (1) ∼77% of X-flares occur within 7 days after T 1 , with an occurrence peak at T SF =2 (∼20% probability), (2) ∼78% of M-flares also occur within 7 days after T 1 , with an occurrence peak at T SF =4 (∼20% probability), and (3) no major flare occurs after T SF =11. It is found that the GOES soft X-ray peak flux has a very weak relationship with the magnetic free energy density. This weak relationship can be interpreted in terms of the energy partition in a flare. In conclusion, the obtained seven thresholds will be useful for monitoring an AR that has a high potential to produce an M- or X-class flare.

AB - With the aim of understanding the photospheric magnetic field properties of active regions (ARs) that produce M-class or greater flares, physical magnetic parameters of ARs provided by the Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARP) are examined. A total of 223 flares are collected in 83 ARs, including 31 X- and 192 M-class flares. In this study, twelve SHARP parameters are analyzed, which are the sums of various physical quantities (e.g., magnetic flux, magnetic free energy density, vertical current, current helicity, shear angle, and Lorentz force). For X- and M-class flares, good correlation coefficients (≳ 0.90) are obtained among the seven magnetic parameters, namely, total unsigned quantities of (1) magnetic flux, (2) vertical current, (3) current helicity, and (4) flux near polarity inversion line, as well as (5) total photospheric magnetic free energy density, (6) total magnitude of Lorentz force (TOTBSQ), and (7) area of AR. A threshold for low bound is estimated for each of the seven magnetic parameters based on X-class flares. Only ∼5% of M-flares occur below the estimated thresholds. A time difference (T SF ) is calculated between the time when all the magnetic parameter thresholds but TOTBSQ are met (T 1 ) and the time when the flare starts. The TOTBSQ is excluded in the T 1 calculation because its value is often missing in the interval of interest. Results show that (1) ∼77% of X-flares occur within 7 days after T 1 , with an occurrence peak at T SF =2 (∼20% probability), (2) ∼78% of M-flares also occur within 7 days after T 1 , with an occurrence peak at T SF =4 (∼20% probability), and (3) no major flare occurs after T SF =11. It is found that the GOES soft X-ray peak flux has a very weak relationship with the magnetic free energy density. This weak relationship can be interpreted in terms of the energy partition in a flare. In conclusion, the obtained seven thresholds will be useful for monitoring an AR that has a high potential to produce an M- or X-class flare.

KW - Active region

KW - Photospheric magnetic field

KW - Solar flare

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85063918466&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85063918466&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jastp.2019.04.001

DO - 10.1016/j.jastp.2019.04.001

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85063918466

VL - 188

SP - 44

EP - 51

JO - Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics

JF - Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics

SN - 1364-6826

ER -