A review of electrical conductivity models for conductive polymer composite

Nabilah Afiqah Mohd Radzuan, Abu Bakar Sulong, Jaafar Sahari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Conductive Polymer Composite (CPC) can be considered one of the best material candidates for the bipolar plates in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells due to its balance between electrical and mechanical properties, low cost and ease of manufacturing. The development of the models has been shown to be important for predicting the electrical properties of the CPCs. The main challenge is to produce a constant electric supply in the fuel cell systems which influence the overall fuel cell performance. Generally, the classical percolation theory describes that the electrical conductivity of the polymer composite is achieved when the volume fraction of the conductive filler is above the specific value, known as percolation threshold phenomena. Current research trends using the General Effective Media (GEM) model show it is the best model to predict the electrical properties of the composite. The main advantage of using the GEM is the model can predict the electrical conductivity for multiple filler systems at high filler loadings. Numerous factors including volume fraction, shape and size, aspect ratio, critical value, and orientation are significant in developing a robust model. Controlling the filler orientations in the CPCs are important as they are able to improve the mechanical performance while enhancing the electrical conductivity of the composite. Orientation can be induced by a few methods such as shear stress, altering die and fillers aspect ratio based on the needs. By controlling the fillers direction, one is able to control both the mechanical and electrical conductivity of the CPCs. However, recent publications seem to suggest that the Fibre Contact Model (FCM) is the latest model that considers the orientation factor in predicting conductivity. A good agreement between experimental results and modelling prediction can be observed using carbon-fibre reinforced polypropylene below and above the percolation threshold. Parallel orientations of the fibres to the extrusion die direction provided better electrical conductivity compared to randomly oriented fillers. This manuscript attempts to discuss other potential models used in predicting the electrical conductivity of the CPCs.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 5 Oct 2015

Fingerprint

fillers
Fillers
electrical resistivity
composite materials
Composite materials
polymers
Polymers
fuel cells
Electric properties
electrical properties
aspect ratio
Fuel cells
Aspect ratio
Volume fraction
Extrusion dies
conductivity
fibers
thresholds
Electric Conductivity
Fibers

Keywords

  • Composite bipolar plate
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Model conductivity
  • Polymer composite
  • Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Cite this

A review of electrical conductivity models for conductive polymer composite. / Mohd Radzuan, Nabilah Afiqah; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Sahari, Jaafar.

In: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 05.10.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{74c56b69ce784e43a310225d7a9d3a00,
title = "A review of electrical conductivity models for conductive polymer composite",
abstract = "Conductive Polymer Composite (CPC) can be considered one of the best material candidates for the bipolar plates in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells due to its balance between electrical and mechanical properties, low cost and ease of manufacturing. The development of the models has been shown to be important for predicting the electrical properties of the CPCs. The main challenge is to produce a constant electric supply in the fuel cell systems which influence the overall fuel cell performance. Generally, the classical percolation theory describes that the electrical conductivity of the polymer composite is achieved when the volume fraction of the conductive filler is above the specific value, known as percolation threshold phenomena. Current research trends using the General Effective Media (GEM) model show it is the best model to predict the electrical properties of the composite. The main advantage of using the GEM is the model can predict the electrical conductivity for multiple filler systems at high filler loadings. Numerous factors including volume fraction, shape and size, aspect ratio, critical value, and orientation are significant in developing a robust model. Controlling the filler orientations in the CPCs are important as they are able to improve the mechanical performance while enhancing the electrical conductivity of the composite. Orientation can be induced by a few methods such as shear stress, altering die and fillers aspect ratio based on the needs. By controlling the fillers direction, one is able to control both the mechanical and electrical conductivity of the CPCs. However, recent publications seem to suggest that the Fibre Contact Model (FCM) is the latest model that considers the orientation factor in predicting conductivity. A good agreement between experimental results and modelling prediction can be observed using carbon-fibre reinforced polypropylene below and above the percolation threshold. Parallel orientations of the fibres to the extrusion die direction provided better electrical conductivity compared to randomly oriented fillers. This manuscript attempts to discuss other potential models used in predicting the electrical conductivity of the CPCs.",
keywords = "Composite bipolar plate, Electrical conductivity, Model conductivity, Polymer composite, Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell",
author = "{Mohd Radzuan}, {Nabilah Afiqah} and Sulong, {Abu Bakar} and Jaafar Sahari",
year = "2015",
month = "10",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.03.045",
language = "English",
journal = "International Journal of Hydrogen Energy",
issn = "0360-3199",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A review of electrical conductivity models for conductive polymer composite

AU - Mohd Radzuan, Nabilah Afiqah

AU - Sulong, Abu Bakar

AU - Sahari, Jaafar

PY - 2015/10/5

Y1 - 2015/10/5

N2 - Conductive Polymer Composite (CPC) can be considered one of the best material candidates for the bipolar plates in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells due to its balance between electrical and mechanical properties, low cost and ease of manufacturing. The development of the models has been shown to be important for predicting the electrical properties of the CPCs. The main challenge is to produce a constant electric supply in the fuel cell systems which influence the overall fuel cell performance. Generally, the classical percolation theory describes that the electrical conductivity of the polymer composite is achieved when the volume fraction of the conductive filler is above the specific value, known as percolation threshold phenomena. Current research trends using the General Effective Media (GEM) model show it is the best model to predict the electrical properties of the composite. The main advantage of using the GEM is the model can predict the electrical conductivity for multiple filler systems at high filler loadings. Numerous factors including volume fraction, shape and size, aspect ratio, critical value, and orientation are significant in developing a robust model. Controlling the filler orientations in the CPCs are important as they are able to improve the mechanical performance while enhancing the electrical conductivity of the composite. Orientation can be induced by a few methods such as shear stress, altering die and fillers aspect ratio based on the needs. By controlling the fillers direction, one is able to control both the mechanical and electrical conductivity of the CPCs. However, recent publications seem to suggest that the Fibre Contact Model (FCM) is the latest model that considers the orientation factor in predicting conductivity. A good agreement between experimental results and modelling prediction can be observed using carbon-fibre reinforced polypropylene below and above the percolation threshold. Parallel orientations of the fibres to the extrusion die direction provided better electrical conductivity compared to randomly oriented fillers. This manuscript attempts to discuss other potential models used in predicting the electrical conductivity of the CPCs.

AB - Conductive Polymer Composite (CPC) can be considered one of the best material candidates for the bipolar plates in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells due to its balance between electrical and mechanical properties, low cost and ease of manufacturing. The development of the models has been shown to be important for predicting the electrical properties of the CPCs. The main challenge is to produce a constant electric supply in the fuel cell systems which influence the overall fuel cell performance. Generally, the classical percolation theory describes that the electrical conductivity of the polymer composite is achieved when the volume fraction of the conductive filler is above the specific value, known as percolation threshold phenomena. Current research trends using the General Effective Media (GEM) model show it is the best model to predict the electrical properties of the composite. The main advantage of using the GEM is the model can predict the electrical conductivity for multiple filler systems at high filler loadings. Numerous factors including volume fraction, shape and size, aspect ratio, critical value, and orientation are significant in developing a robust model. Controlling the filler orientations in the CPCs are important as they are able to improve the mechanical performance while enhancing the electrical conductivity of the composite. Orientation can be induced by a few methods such as shear stress, altering die and fillers aspect ratio based on the needs. By controlling the fillers direction, one is able to control both the mechanical and electrical conductivity of the CPCs. However, recent publications seem to suggest that the Fibre Contact Model (FCM) is the latest model that considers the orientation factor in predicting conductivity. A good agreement between experimental results and modelling prediction can be observed using carbon-fibre reinforced polypropylene below and above the percolation threshold. Parallel orientations of the fibres to the extrusion die direction provided better electrical conductivity compared to randomly oriented fillers. This manuscript attempts to discuss other potential models used in predicting the electrical conductivity of the CPCs.

KW - Composite bipolar plate

KW - Electrical conductivity

KW - Model conductivity

KW - Polymer composite

KW - Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84962010028&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84962010028&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.03.045

DO - 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.03.045

M3 - Article

JO - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

JF - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

SN - 0360-3199

ER -