A Phenomenological Model of the Screen-Printed, Silver Paste Contact to Si Substrate

Samir Mahmmod Ahmad, Cheow Siu Leong, Richard W. Winder, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Saleem H. Zaidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A phenomenological model of screen-printed silver contact to an n-doped, p-type multi-crystalline Si wafer, based on extensive electrical, morphological, and compositional evaluations, has been developed. Rapid and quasi steady state heating configurations over broad (150–925°C) temperature ranges were investigated. Conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA) with a conveyor belt was used for a rapid and custom-designed three-zone quartz tube furnace (QTF) for slow temperature variations. Lowest contact resistivity at 0.15 mΩ cm2 was observed in RTA horizontal configuration which was 25 times smaller than the same in QTF. RTA contact resistivity measurements revealed a minimum at 870°C while linear reduction in contact resistance was observed for the QTF configuration. The silver/silicon contact was based on three physical mechanisms: (1) migration of Si into glass and silver regions of the paste, (2) intermixing of silver and silicon (nano- and micrometer scale), and (3) epitaxial growth of silver/silicon crystallites. Experimental evidence of silicon migration was supported through extensive phosphorous concentration measurements from silicon and silver/silicon regions. The glass film with a colloidal distribution of randomly-distributed silver/silicon crystallites leads to lower contact resistance. Rapid temperature fluctuations facilitate development of Ag/Si crystallites. The higher contact resistance in quasi steady state thermal configuration was attributed to glass films with reduced density of Ag/Si crystallites. This disadvantage may be eliminated through post-contact, forming gas annealing at lower temperatures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6791-6810
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Volume47
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018

Fingerprint

Silicon
Ointments
Silver
silver
Crystallites
silicon
Substrates
crystallites
Quartz
Rapid thermal annealing
Contact resistance
contact resistance
furnaces
Furnaces
annealing
quasi-steady states
quartz
tubes
configurations
Glass

Keywords

  • Ag contact
  • contact resistivity
  • electron dispersive x-ray characterization
  • phenomenological model
  • scanning electron microscope characterization
  • transmission line method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

A Phenomenological Model of the Screen-Printed, Silver Paste Contact to Si Substrate. / Ahmad, Samir Mahmmod; Leong, Cheow Siu; Winder, Richard W.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Zaidi, Saleem H.

In: Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 47, No. 11, 01.11.2018, p. 6791-6810.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ahmad, Samir Mahmmod ; Leong, Cheow Siu ; Winder, Richard W. ; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman ; Zaidi, Saleem H. / A Phenomenological Model of the Screen-Printed, Silver Paste Contact to Si Substrate. In: Journal of Electronic Materials. 2018 ; Vol. 47, No. 11. pp. 6791-6810.
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