A novel optical ammonia sensor based on reflectance measurements for highly polluted and coloured water

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Abstract

One of the major problems in the analysis of ammonia (NH 3) using spectrophotometric method is highly coloured water sample. A reflectometric NH 3 sensor based on a facile single-step immobilisation of cobalt(II) (Co 2+) ion onto high capacity Dowex HCR-W2 microspheres has been developed to enable the direct NH 3 determination in highly coloured water samples. The combination of Co 2+ ion-immobilised microspheres via cation exchange chemical reaction and reflectometric technique has improved the optode sensing performance with respect to linear response range and response time. Immobilised Co 2+ ion, when complexed with NH 3 gave a blue colouration of hexamminecobaltate(II) ([Co(NH 3) 6] 2+) complex at pH 13. The NH 3 sensor reached maximum colour intensity in ∼6 min at ambient conditions. The linear calibration curve was 60-290 mM NH 3 with a detection limit of 16 mM NH 3, which is suitable for direct determination of NH 3-enriched leachate water samples. A good reproducibility between 5.4 and 5.9% relative standard deviation (RSD) was obtained with the probe and the sensing performance can be regenerated using buffer pH 1. The effect of potential interference ions has been investigated during the quantification of NH 3 in heavily polluted sewage water. The results obtained were in good agreement with those produced by acidimetric reference method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)994-1000
Number of pages7
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
Volume171-172
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012

Fingerprint

Reflectometers
Ammonia
ammonia
Ions
reflectance
Water
sensors
Sensors
Microspheres
water
ions
color
sewage
Sewage
Cobalt
immobilization
Cations
Chemical reactions
standard deviation
chemical reactions

Keywords

  • Ammonia
  • Dowex HCR-W2
  • Hexamminecobaltate(II) complex
  • Immobilised cobalt(II) ion
  • Optode
  • Reflectometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

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abstract = "One of the major problems in the analysis of ammonia (NH 3) using spectrophotometric method is highly coloured water sample. A reflectometric NH 3 sensor based on a facile single-step immobilisation of cobalt(II) (Co 2+) ion onto high capacity Dowex HCR-W2 microspheres has been developed to enable the direct NH 3 determination in highly coloured water samples. The combination of Co 2+ ion-immobilised microspheres via cation exchange chemical reaction and reflectometric technique has improved the optode sensing performance with respect to linear response range and response time. Immobilised Co 2+ ion, when complexed with NH 3 gave a blue colouration of hexamminecobaltate(II) ([Co(NH 3) 6] 2+) complex at pH 13. The NH 3 sensor reached maximum colour intensity in ∼6 min at ambient conditions. The linear calibration curve was 60-290 mM NH 3 with a detection limit of 16 mM NH 3, which is suitable for direct determination of NH 3-enriched leachate water samples. A good reproducibility between 5.4 and 5.9{\%} relative standard deviation (RSD) was obtained with the probe and the sensing performance can be regenerated using buffer pH 1. The effect of potential interference ions has been investigated during the quantification of NH 3 in heavily polluted sewage water. The results obtained were in good agreement with those produced by acidimetric reference method.",
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N2 - One of the major problems in the analysis of ammonia (NH 3) using spectrophotometric method is highly coloured water sample. A reflectometric NH 3 sensor based on a facile single-step immobilisation of cobalt(II) (Co 2+) ion onto high capacity Dowex HCR-W2 microspheres has been developed to enable the direct NH 3 determination in highly coloured water samples. The combination of Co 2+ ion-immobilised microspheres via cation exchange chemical reaction and reflectometric technique has improved the optode sensing performance with respect to linear response range and response time. Immobilised Co 2+ ion, when complexed with NH 3 gave a blue colouration of hexamminecobaltate(II) ([Co(NH 3) 6] 2+) complex at pH 13. The NH 3 sensor reached maximum colour intensity in ∼6 min at ambient conditions. The linear calibration curve was 60-290 mM NH 3 with a detection limit of 16 mM NH 3, which is suitable for direct determination of NH 3-enriched leachate water samples. A good reproducibility between 5.4 and 5.9% relative standard deviation (RSD) was obtained with the probe and the sensing performance can be regenerated using buffer pH 1. The effect of potential interference ions has been investigated during the quantification of NH 3 in heavily polluted sewage water. The results obtained were in good agreement with those produced by acidimetric reference method.

AB - One of the major problems in the analysis of ammonia (NH 3) using spectrophotometric method is highly coloured water sample. A reflectometric NH 3 sensor based on a facile single-step immobilisation of cobalt(II) (Co 2+) ion onto high capacity Dowex HCR-W2 microspheres has been developed to enable the direct NH 3 determination in highly coloured water samples. The combination of Co 2+ ion-immobilised microspheres via cation exchange chemical reaction and reflectometric technique has improved the optode sensing performance with respect to linear response range and response time. Immobilised Co 2+ ion, when complexed with NH 3 gave a blue colouration of hexamminecobaltate(II) ([Co(NH 3) 6] 2+) complex at pH 13. The NH 3 sensor reached maximum colour intensity in ∼6 min at ambient conditions. The linear calibration curve was 60-290 mM NH 3 with a detection limit of 16 mM NH 3, which is suitable for direct determination of NH 3-enriched leachate water samples. A good reproducibility between 5.4 and 5.9% relative standard deviation (RSD) was obtained with the probe and the sensing performance can be regenerated using buffer pH 1. The effect of potential interference ions has been investigated during the quantification of NH 3 in heavily polluted sewage water. The results obtained were in good agreement with those produced by acidimetric reference method.

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