A novel hybrid Nafion-PBI-ZP membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

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Abstract

Methanol crossover through proton conducting membranes represents one of the main drawbacks in DMFCs. This study presented a novel organic-inorganic hybrid membrane with several different compositions by casting mixtures of zirconium phosphate (ZP), polybenzimidazole (PBI) and Nafion dispersion in dimethylacetamide. The presence of PBI and ZP in the membranes was demonstrated with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, it was observed that the hybrid Nafion-PBI-ZP membrane had the finest structure. This is because the synthesized films were homogeneous and therefore formed a dense membrane. The water content was higher in the hybrid membrane: 39.91% compared with 35.52% in Nafion117. The water content is important for the ion transportation in the membrane; therefore, a higher water uptake rate will contribute to a better fuel cell performance. It was determined that the proton conductivity of the hybrid membrane was 0.020 S cm-1, which was comparable with Nafion117, which had a proton-conductivity of 0.022 S cm-1. The methanol permeability of the hybrid membrane was 2.34 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, while the value for Nafion117 was 8.91 × 10-7 cm2 s-1. This showed that the methanol permeability of the hybrid membrane was almost 4 times lower than that of Nafion117. The selectivity factor for the Nafion-PBI 1%-ZP 1% membrane was 8.64 × 104 Scm -3, while that of Nafion117 was 2.48 × 104 S scm-3. From a thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), the addition of PBI and zirconium phosphate was shown to improve the thermal durability in the temperature range from room temperature to 450 °C over that of Nafion117. This study proofed that the Nafion-PBI 1%-ZP 1% performed better than commercial Nafion117 and other type of membranes. The membrane was tested on as single cell of DMFC. It gave the highest power density as compared to other type of membrane and proofed that it has potential to be used in DMFCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14668-14677
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume36
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011

Fingerprint

polybenzimidazole
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC)
Zirconium
fuel cells
phosphates
Phosphates
methyl alcohol
membranes
Membranes
Methanol
Proton conductivity
Water content
moisture content
protons
permeability
conductivity
Energy dispersive X ray analysis
thermogravimetry

Keywords

  • Conductivity
  • DMFC
  • Hybrid membrane
  • Methanol crossover
  • Nafion-PBI-ZP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Cite this

@article{6c2c517447584f10b47ad8842c9a5f95,
title = "A novel hybrid Nafion-PBI-ZP membrane for direct methanol fuel cells",
abstract = "Methanol crossover through proton conducting membranes represents one of the main drawbacks in DMFCs. This study presented a novel organic-inorganic hybrid membrane with several different compositions by casting mixtures of zirconium phosphate (ZP), polybenzimidazole (PBI) and Nafion dispersion in dimethylacetamide. The presence of PBI and ZP in the membranes was demonstrated with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, it was observed that the hybrid Nafion-PBI-ZP membrane had the finest structure. This is because the synthesized films were homogeneous and therefore formed a dense membrane. The water content was higher in the hybrid membrane: 39.91{\%} compared with 35.52{\%} in Nafion117. The water content is important for the ion transportation in the membrane; therefore, a higher water uptake rate will contribute to a better fuel cell performance. It was determined that the proton conductivity of the hybrid membrane was 0.020 S cm-1, which was comparable with Nafion117, which had a proton-conductivity of 0.022 S cm-1. The methanol permeability of the hybrid membrane was 2.34 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, while the value for Nafion117 was 8.91 × 10-7 cm2 s-1. This showed that the methanol permeability of the hybrid membrane was almost 4 times lower than that of Nafion117. The selectivity factor for the Nafion-PBI 1{\%}-ZP 1{\%} membrane was 8.64 × 104 Scm -3, while that of Nafion117 was 2.48 × 104 S scm-3. From a thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), the addition of PBI and zirconium phosphate was shown to improve the thermal durability in the temperature range from room temperature to 450 °C over that of Nafion117. This study proofed that the Nafion-PBI 1{\%}-ZP 1{\%} performed better than commercial Nafion117 and other type of membranes. The membrane was tested on as single cell of DMFC. It gave the highest power density as compared to other type of membrane and proofed that it has potential to be used in DMFCs.",
keywords = "Conductivity, DMFC, Hybrid membrane, Methanol crossover, Nafion-PBI-ZP",
author = "H. Ahmad and Kamarudin, {Siti Kartom} and Hasran, {Umi Azmah} and {Wan Daud}, {Wan Ramli}",
year = "2011",
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doi = "10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.08.044",
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volume = "36",
pages = "14668--14677",
journal = "International Journal of Hydrogen Energy",
issn = "0360-3199",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel hybrid Nafion-PBI-ZP membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

AU - Ahmad, H.

AU - Kamarudin, Siti Kartom

AU - Hasran, Umi Azmah

AU - Wan Daud, Wan Ramli

PY - 2011/11

Y1 - 2011/11

N2 - Methanol crossover through proton conducting membranes represents one of the main drawbacks in DMFCs. This study presented a novel organic-inorganic hybrid membrane with several different compositions by casting mixtures of zirconium phosphate (ZP), polybenzimidazole (PBI) and Nafion dispersion in dimethylacetamide. The presence of PBI and ZP in the membranes was demonstrated with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, it was observed that the hybrid Nafion-PBI-ZP membrane had the finest structure. This is because the synthesized films were homogeneous and therefore formed a dense membrane. The water content was higher in the hybrid membrane: 39.91% compared with 35.52% in Nafion117. The water content is important for the ion transportation in the membrane; therefore, a higher water uptake rate will contribute to a better fuel cell performance. It was determined that the proton conductivity of the hybrid membrane was 0.020 S cm-1, which was comparable with Nafion117, which had a proton-conductivity of 0.022 S cm-1. The methanol permeability of the hybrid membrane was 2.34 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, while the value for Nafion117 was 8.91 × 10-7 cm2 s-1. This showed that the methanol permeability of the hybrid membrane was almost 4 times lower than that of Nafion117. The selectivity factor for the Nafion-PBI 1%-ZP 1% membrane was 8.64 × 104 Scm -3, while that of Nafion117 was 2.48 × 104 S scm-3. From a thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), the addition of PBI and zirconium phosphate was shown to improve the thermal durability in the temperature range from room temperature to 450 °C over that of Nafion117. This study proofed that the Nafion-PBI 1%-ZP 1% performed better than commercial Nafion117 and other type of membranes. The membrane was tested on as single cell of DMFC. It gave the highest power density as compared to other type of membrane and proofed that it has potential to be used in DMFCs.

AB - Methanol crossover through proton conducting membranes represents one of the main drawbacks in DMFCs. This study presented a novel organic-inorganic hybrid membrane with several different compositions by casting mixtures of zirconium phosphate (ZP), polybenzimidazole (PBI) and Nafion dispersion in dimethylacetamide. The presence of PBI and ZP in the membranes was demonstrated with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, it was observed that the hybrid Nafion-PBI-ZP membrane had the finest structure. This is because the synthesized films were homogeneous and therefore formed a dense membrane. The water content was higher in the hybrid membrane: 39.91% compared with 35.52% in Nafion117. The water content is important for the ion transportation in the membrane; therefore, a higher water uptake rate will contribute to a better fuel cell performance. It was determined that the proton conductivity of the hybrid membrane was 0.020 S cm-1, which was comparable with Nafion117, which had a proton-conductivity of 0.022 S cm-1. The methanol permeability of the hybrid membrane was 2.34 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, while the value for Nafion117 was 8.91 × 10-7 cm2 s-1. This showed that the methanol permeability of the hybrid membrane was almost 4 times lower than that of Nafion117. The selectivity factor for the Nafion-PBI 1%-ZP 1% membrane was 8.64 × 104 Scm -3, while that of Nafion117 was 2.48 × 104 S scm-3. From a thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), the addition of PBI and zirconium phosphate was shown to improve the thermal durability in the temperature range from room temperature to 450 °C over that of Nafion117. This study proofed that the Nafion-PBI 1%-ZP 1% performed better than commercial Nafion117 and other type of membranes. The membrane was tested on as single cell of DMFC. It gave the highest power density as compared to other type of membrane and proofed that it has potential to be used in DMFCs.

KW - Conductivity

KW - DMFC

KW - Hybrid membrane

KW - Methanol crossover

KW - Nafion-PBI-ZP

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