A Molecular Approach to Epilepsy Management: from Current Therapeutic Methods to Preconditioning Efforts

Elham Amini, Mohsen Rezaei, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Mojtaba Golpich, Rasoul Ghasemi, Zahurin Mohamed, Raymond Azman Ali, Leila Dargahi, Abolhassan Ahmadiani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Epilepsy is the most common and chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The key aim in treating patients with epilepsy is the suppression of seizures. An understanding of focal changes that are involved in epileptogenesis may therefore provide novel approaches for optimal treatment of the seizure. Although the actual pathogenesis of epilepsy is still uncertain, recently growing lines of evidence declare that microglia and astrocyte activation, oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondria dysfunction, and damage of blood–brain barrier (BBB) are involved in its pathogenesis. Impaired GABAergic function in the brain is probably the most accepted hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Clinical neuroimaging of patients and experimental modeling have demonstrated that seizures may induce neuronal apoptosis. Apoptosis signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of several types of epilepsy such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The quality of life of patients is seriously affected by treatment-related problems and also by unpredictability of epileptic seizures. Moreover, the available antiepileptic drugs (AED) are not significantly effective to prevent epileptogenesis. Thus, novel therapies that are proficient to control seizure in people who are suffering from epilepsy are needed. The preconditioning method promises to serve as an alternative therapeutic approach because this strategy has demonstrated the capability to curtail epileptogenesis. For this reason, understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying brain tolerance induced by preconditioning is crucial to delineate new neuroprotective ways against seizure damage and epileptogenesis. In this review, we summarize the work to date on the pathogenesis of epilepsy and discuss recent therapeutic strategies in the treatment of epilepsy. We will highlight that novel therapy targeting such as preconditioning process holds great promise. In addition, we will also highlight the role of gene reprogramming and mitochondrial biogenesis in the preconditioning-mediated neuroprotective events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)492-513
Number of pages22
JournalMolecular Neurobiology
Volume52
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2015

Fingerprint

Epilepsy
Seizures
Therapeutics
Apoptosis
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Brain
Microglia
Organelle Biogenesis
Nervous System Diseases
Neuroimaging
Astrocytes
Anticonvulsants
Reactive Oxygen Species
Mitochondria
Oxidative Stress
Quality of Life
Genes

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Epilepsy
  • Inflammation
  • Mitochondria dysfunction
  • Neuroprotection
  • Oxidative stress
  • Preconditioning
  • Seizure
  • Tolerance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

A Molecular Approach to Epilepsy Management : from Current Therapeutic Methods to Preconditioning Efforts. / Amini, Elham; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Golpich, Mojtaba; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ali, Raymond Azman; Dargahi, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan.

In: Molecular Neurobiology, Vol. 52, No. 1, 25.08.2015, p. 492-513.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amini, Elham ; Rezaei, Mohsen ; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah ; Golpich, Mojtaba ; Ghasemi, Rasoul ; Mohamed, Zahurin ; Ali, Raymond Azman ; Dargahi, Leila ; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan. / A Molecular Approach to Epilepsy Management : from Current Therapeutic Methods to Preconditioning Efforts. In: Molecular Neurobiology. 2015 ; Vol. 52, No. 1. pp. 492-513.
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