A large response range reflectometric urea biosensor made from silica-gel nanoparticles

Muawia Alqasaimeh, Lee Yook Heng, Musa Ahmad, A. S. Santhana Raj, Tan Ling Ling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13186-13209
Number of pages24
JournalSensors (Basel, Switzerland)
Volume14
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Silica Gel
Silica gel
Biosensing Techniques
silica gel
ureas
bioinstrumentation
Biosensors
Urea
Nanoparticles
nanoparticles
Urease
Nanospheres
Immobilized Enzymes
Enzymatic hydrolysis
urine
Polymethyl Methacrylate
Transducers
immobilization
Immobilization
Functional groups

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

A large response range reflectometric urea biosensor made from silica-gel nanoparticles. / Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Santhana Raj, A. S.; Ling, Tan Ling.

In: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), Vol. 14, No. 7, 2014, p. 13186-13209.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{224a43faeffe43a1b527cdb69bdeffe9,
title = "A large response range reflectometric urea biosensor made from silica-gel nanoparticles",
abstract = "A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10{\%} relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.",
author = "Muawia Alqasaimeh and Heng, {Lee Yook} and Musa Ahmad and {Santhana Raj}, {A. S.} and Ling, {Tan Ling}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.3390/s140713186",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
pages = "13186--13209",
journal = "Sensors (Switzerland)",
issn = "1424-8220",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A large response range reflectometric urea biosensor made from silica-gel nanoparticles

AU - Alqasaimeh, Muawia

AU - Heng, Lee Yook

AU - Ahmad, Musa

AU - Santhana Raj, A. S.

AU - Ling, Tan Ling

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.

AB - A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84941339220&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84941339220&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/s140713186

DO - 10.3390/s140713186

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 13186

EP - 13209

JO - Sensors (Switzerland)

JF - Sensors (Switzerland)

SN - 1424-8220

IS - 7

ER -