A bloom of Karlodinium australe (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) associated with mass mortality of cage-cultured fishes in West Johor Strait, Malaysia

Hong Chang Lim, Chui Pin Leaw, Toh Hii Tan, Nyuk Fong Kon, Leh Hie Yek, Kieng Soon Hii, Sing Tung Teng, Roziawati Mohd Razali, Gires Usup, Mitsunori Iwataki, Po Teen Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A recent (February 2014) mass mortality of fishes was observed in the cage-farming region of the West Johor Strait of Malaysia, involving over four different species of cultured fishes, numbering ~50,000 fish. A field investigation at six stations along the West Johor Strait collected water samples and examined for the presence of harmful species. Dead fishes were collected for necropsy. The phytoplankton composition was dominated by a species of Karlodinium, at a considerably high cell concentration (0.31-2.34×106cellsl-1), and constituting 68.8-98.6% of the phytoplankton relative abundance at all stations. Detailed morphological assessment by light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the species was Karlodinium australe de Salas, Bolch and Hallegraeff. This was supported by molecular evidence of the nuclear encoded large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) via single-cell PCR. The sequences of LSU rDNA yielded 3.6-4.0% divergence when compared to the sister taxon, K. armiger; and >6.5% when compared to other Karlodinium species. Fish necropsy showed symptoms similar to those affected by karlotoxin ichthyotoxins. This is the first report of a mass mortality of cage-cultured and wild fishes attributed to the unarmored dinoflagellate K. australe.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-62
Number of pages12
JournalHarmful Algae
Volume40
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014

Fingerprint

Gymnodiniales
mass mortality
Malaysia
Dinophyceae
strait
cages
algal bloom
fish
necropsy
ichthyotoxins
phytoplankton
wild fish
internal transcribed spacers
signs and symptoms (animals and humans)
scanning electron microscopy
dinoflagellate
farming systems
relative abundance
cells
divergence

Keywords

  • Dinoflagellate
  • Fish mortality
  • Harmful algal bloom
  • Karlodinium australe
  • Malaysia
  • West Johor Strait

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Plant Science

Cite this

A bloom of Karlodinium australe (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) associated with mass mortality of cage-cultured fishes in West Johor Strait, Malaysia. / Lim, Hong Chang; Leaw, Chui Pin; Tan, Toh Hii; Kon, Nyuk Fong; Yek, Leh Hie; Hii, Kieng Soon; Teng, Sing Tung; Razali, Roziawati Mohd; Usup, Gires; Iwataki, Mitsunori; Lim, Po Teen.

In: Harmful Algae, Vol. 40, 01.12.2014, p. 51-62.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lim, Hong Chang ; Leaw, Chui Pin ; Tan, Toh Hii ; Kon, Nyuk Fong ; Yek, Leh Hie ; Hii, Kieng Soon ; Teng, Sing Tung ; Razali, Roziawati Mohd ; Usup, Gires ; Iwataki, Mitsunori ; Lim, Po Teen. / A bloom of Karlodinium australe (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) associated with mass mortality of cage-cultured fishes in West Johor Strait, Malaysia. In: Harmful Algae. 2014 ; Vol. 40. pp. 51-62.
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abstract = "A recent (February 2014) mass mortality of fishes was observed in the cage-farming region of the West Johor Strait of Malaysia, involving over four different species of cultured fishes, numbering ~50,000 fish. A field investigation at six stations along the West Johor Strait collected water samples and examined for the presence of harmful species. Dead fishes were collected for necropsy. The phytoplankton composition was dominated by a species of Karlodinium, at a considerably high cell concentration (0.31-2.34×106cellsl-1), and constituting 68.8-98.6{\%} of the phytoplankton relative abundance at all stations. Detailed morphological assessment by light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the species was Karlodinium australe de Salas, Bolch and Hallegraeff. This was supported by molecular evidence of the nuclear encoded large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) via single-cell PCR. The sequences of LSU rDNA yielded 3.6-4.0{\%} divergence when compared to the sister taxon, K. armiger; and >6.5{\%} when compared to other Karlodinium species. Fish necropsy showed symptoms similar to those affected by karlotoxin ichthyotoxins. This is the first report of a mass mortality of cage-cultured and wild fishes attributed to the unarmored dinoflagellate K. australe.",
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AU - Kon, Nyuk Fong

AU - Yek, Leh Hie

AU - Hii, Kieng Soon

AU - Teng, Sing Tung

AU - Razali, Roziawati Mohd

AU - Usup, Gires

AU - Iwataki, Mitsunori

AU - Lim, Po Teen

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